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Introduction / Summary (2018): Hello and welcome to our Sexuality pages. While this is not a pornographic site, it is provocative - founded upon what people search on the Internet (which is very interesting!). We then relate this to our biological and cultural evolution.
Sex is obviously important to people - and if you want to improve your sexual relationships then knowing the truth about our human evolution is the best foundation. By opening our minds to a greater diversity of behaviors, this knowledge will help you creatively cultivate healthy pleasurable moral attitudes and sexy smutty relationships (free from religious guilt & cultural myths).
Support an open honest discussion on the truth of our sexual evolution and behaviour. If you support sex positive, moral, informed sexual behaviour please share this knowledge. (These pages have a diverse collection of fascinating information relating to our human sexual evolution so people will appreciate it - see our 'nice letters' page!).
Sincerely, Karene.

"It is not enough to conquer; one must learn to seduce." (Voltaire) - "Desire is the essence of a man." (Spinoza)

Causes, Treatment, Information

Hello. Thanks for visiting our evolutionary philosophy of human sexuality pages. We are currently researching good quality sites relating to our biological and cultural sexual evolution - as a way of collecting and presenting the most important / latest knowledge and research.

Below you will find summaries of articles & websites on Miscarriage i.e. latest research on Causes, Treatment and Information.

Definition and Statistics

The medical definition of miscarriage is the spontaneous loss of a pregnancy before 24 weeks’ gestation, when the foetus has a chance of survival outside the womb.

The most sensitive studies suggest that with fertile couples pregnancy occurs in 60% of natural cycles. The studies also suggest that as many as 50% of pregnancies miscarry before implantation in the womb occurs. Early after implantation (before a pregnancy is clinically recognised) pregnancy loss rate is around 30%. And even after a pregnancy is clinically recognised as many as one quarter of pregnancies miscarry, usually during the first 14 weeks.

After one miscarriage, your risk of miscarriage is the same as that of a woman who's never had a miscarriage. Even without treatment, the ACOG reports that about 60 percent to 70 percent of women with repeated miscarriages go on to have successful pregnancies.

The most risky time is between six and eight weeks from the last menstrual period.
Over half the babies who are miscarried during this period have a chromosomal abnormality. The second most common cause of miscarriage is the baby not implanting itself correctly in the womb lining - another chance occurrence.


Threatened miscarriage: describes bleeding in early pregnancy, where the
cervix is found to be tightly closed. The pregnancy is most likely to continue.
Inevitable miscarriage: describes bleeding in early pregnancy where the cervix is found to be open, suggesting that the pregnancy will be lost.
Incomplete miscarriage: miscarriage has definitely started, but there is still some pregnancy tissue left in the womb. The cervix is usually found to be open.
Complete miscarriage: when the pregnancy has been lost, the womb is now empty and the cervix has closed.
Missed miscarriage: when the pregnancy stopped growing some weeks ago, but there was no bleeding at this time. This type of miscarriage usually causes a slight, dark-brown blood loss and the sudden end of normal pregnancy symptoms. It is sometimes called a blighted ovum.


The most common symptom is vaginal bleeding, which can range from light spotting to heavy. The blood may contain clots or other tissue. There can often be cramping, with period-like pains, and back pain.


If a miscarriage is complete then no further treatment is needed. When miscarriage occurs under 10 weeks, it is more likely to complete by itself. The other types of miscarriage frequently require treatment, though in some cases it is appropriate to see first if nature takes its course. The decision on whether medical treatment is needed depends on the stage of pregnancy, the amount of bleeding, any risk to health, and each woman's personal choice.
For missed miscarriage or when there is significant bleeding, treatment with drugs or surgery may be needed to remove the remaining pregnancy tissue. Although bleeding may be more prolonged afterwards, research suggests that avoiding an operation may halve the risk of an infection. However, it is very important that the woman is monitored closely to ensure that all the pregnancy tissue is expelled naturally, as a significant delay can occasionally result in infection.

Treatment: Dilation and Curettage Procedure

D&C, also known as dilation and curettage, is a surgical procedure performed after a first trimester miscarriage. Dilation means to open up the cervix; curettage means to remove the contents of the uterus. Curettage may be performed by scraping the uterine wall with a curette instrument or by a suction curettage (also called vacuum aspiration), using a vacuum-type instrument.

About 50% of women who miscarry do not undergo a D&C procedure. Women can safely miscarry on their own, with few problems in pregnancies that end before 10 weeks. After 10 weeks, the miscarriage is more likely to be incomplete, requiring a D&C procedure to be performed. Choosing whether to miscarry naturally (called expectant management) or to have a D&C procedure is often a personal choice.


A D&C procedure may be done as an outpatient or inpatient procedure in a hospital or other type of surgical center. Most often, general anesthesia is used, but IV anesthesia or paracervical anesthesia may also be used.

1) You may receive antibiotics intravenously or orally to help prevent infection.

2) The cervix is examined to evaluate if it is open or not. If the cervix is closed, dilators (narrow instruments in varying sizes) will be inserted to open the cervix to allow the surgical instruments to pass through. A speculum will be placed to keep the cervix open.

3) The vacuum aspiration (also called suction curettage) procedure uses a plastic cannula (a flexible tube) attached to a suction device to remove the contents of the uterus. The cannula is approximately the diameter in millimeters as the number of weeks gestation the pregnancy is. For example, a 7mm cannula would be used for a pregnancy that is 7 weeks gestation. The use of a curette (sharp edged loop) to scrape the lining of the uterus may also be used, but is often not necessary.

4) The tissue removed during the procedure may be sent off to the pathology lab for testing.

5) Once the health care provider has seen that the uterus has firmed up and that the bleeding has stopped or is minimal, the speculum will be removed and you will be sent to recovery.

Possible Risks

* Risks associated with anesthesia such as adverse reaction to medication and breathing problems
* Hemorrhage or heavy bleeding
* Infection in the uterus or other pelvic organs
* Perforation or puncture to the uterus
* Laceration or weakening of the cervix
* Scarring of the uterus or cervix, which may require further treatment
* Incomplete procedure which requires another procedure to be performed.



Analyse any human emotion, no matter how far it may be removed from the sphere of sex, and you are sure to discover somewhere the primal impulse, to which life owes its perpetuation.Analyse any human emotion, no matter how far it may be removed from the sphere of sex, and you are sure to discover somewhere the primal impulse, to which life owes its perpetuation. ... The primitive stages can always be re-established; the primitive mind is, in the fullest meaning of the word, imperishable. ... Mans most disagreeable habits and idiosyncrasies, his deceit, his cowardice, his lack of reverence, are engendered by his incomplete adjustment to a complicated civilisation. It is the result of the conflict between our instincts and our culture. (Sigmund Freud)

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Miscarriage: Causes, Treatment, Information

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